AAEM News: Learning to Prepare Medicinal Foods

Posted by: “Lawrence A. Plumlee” laplumlee@pol.net   laplumlee

Thu Oct 28, 2010 7:30 pm (PDT)

Dr. Theron Randolph not only learned to identify
ingredients in food that were unhealthful. He
also studied proper nutrition, and identified how
food processors degraded food. He referred
doctors and patients to the studies of Weston A.
Price, DDS and Francis M. Pottenger, Jr., M.D. to
teach them how to overcome commercial food
degradation. We are fortunate in our own time
that Sally Fallon Morell has become an expert on
how to cook healthfully. Her articles are
fascinating. I thought you should read this
one. Dr. Randolph sent me to San Diego to
investigate the Price-Pottenger Nutrition
Foundation in 1979, so I was surprised that there
was no inclusion of this foundation in our
scientific meeting this year. But no matter. In
the computer age, you can learn about these
things at http://www.ppnf. org/ and https://www. westonaprice. org/, and below.

https://www. westonaprice. org/food- features/ 515-broth- is-beautiful. html

Broth is Beautiful
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Saturday, 01 January 2000 11:48

Stock Pot
“Good broth will resurrect the dead,” says a
South American proverb. Said Escoffier: “Indeed,
stock is everything in cooking. Without it, nothing can be done.”

A cure-all in traditional households and the
magic ingredient in classic gourmet cuisine,
stock or broth made from bones of chicken, fish
and beef builds strong bones, assuages sore
throats, nurtures the sick, puts vigor in the
step and sparkle in love life–so say
grandmothers, midwives and healers. For chefs,
stock is the magic elixir for making soul-warming soups and matchless sauces.

Meat and fish stocks play a role in all
traditional cuisines­French, Italian, Chinese,
Japanese, African, South American, Middle Eastern
and Russian. In America, stock went into gravy
and soups and stews. That was when most animals
were slaughtered locally and nothing went to
waste. Bones, hooves, knuckles, carcasses and
tough meat went into the stock pot and filled the
house with the aroma of love. Today we buy
individual filets and boneless chicken breasts,
or grab fast food on the run, and stock has
disappeared from the American tradition.

Grandmother Knew Best

Science validates what our grandmothers knew.
Rich homemade chicken broths help cure colds.
Stock contains minerals in a form the body can
absorb easily­not just calcium but also
magnesium, phosphorus, silicon, sulphur and trace
minerals. It contains the broken down material
from cartilage and tendons–stuff like
chondroitin sulphates and glucosamine, now sold
as expensive supplements for arthritis and joint pain.

Fish stock, according to traditional lore, helps
boys grow up into strong men, makes childbirth
easy and cures fatigue. “Fish broth will cure
anything,” is another South American proverb.
Broth and soup made with fishheads and carcasses
provide iodine and thyroid-strengtheni ng substances.

When broth is cooled, it congeals due to the
presence of gelatin. The use of gelatin as a
therapeutic agent goes back to the ancient
Chinese. Gelatin was probably the first
functional food, dating from the invention of the
“digestor” by the Frenchman Papin in 1682.
Papin’s digestor consisted of an apparatus for
cooking bones or meat with steam to extract the
gelatin. Just as vitamins occupy the center of
the stage in nutritional investigations today, so
two hundred years ago gelatin held a position in
the forefront of food research. Gelatin was
universally acclaimed as a most nutritious
foodstuff particularly by the French, who were
seeking ways to feed their armies and vast
numbers of homeless in Paris and other cities.
Although gelatin is not a complete protein,
containing only the amino acids arginine and
glycine in large amounts, it acts as a protein
sparer, helping the poor stretch a few morsels of
meat into a complete meal. During the siege of
Paris, when vegetables and meat were scarce, a
doctor named Guerard put his patients on gelatin
bouillon with some added fat and they survived in good health.

The French were the leaders in gelatin research,
which continued up to the 1950s. Gelatin was
found to be useful in the treatment of a long
list of diseases including peptic ulcers,
tuberculosis, diabetes, muscle diseases,
infectious diseases, jaundice and cancer. Babies
had fewer digestive problems when gelatin was
added to their milk. The American researcher
Francis Pottenger pointed out that as gelatin is
a hydrophilic colloid, which means that it
attracts and holds liquids, it facilitates
digestion by attracting digestive juices to food
in the gut. Even the epicures recognized that
broth-based soup did more than please the taste
buds. “Soup is a healthy, light, nourishing food”
said Brillant-Savarin, “good for all of humanity;
it pleases the stomach, stimulates the appetite and prepares the digestion.”

Attention to Detail

Stock or broth begins with bones, some pieces of
meat and fat, vegetables and good water. For beef
and lamb broth, the meat is browned in a hot oven
to form compounds that give flavor and color–the
result of a fusion of amino acids with sugars,
called the Maillard reaction. Then all goes in
the pot–meat, bones, vegetables and water. The
water should be cold, because slow heating helps
bring out flavors. Add vinegar to the broth to
help extract calcium–remember those egg shells
you soaked in vinegar until they turned rubbery.

Heat the broth slowly and once the boil begins,
reduce heat to its lowest point, so the broth
just barely simmers. Scum will rise to the
surface. This is a different kind of colloid, one
in which larger molecules–impuriti es, alkaloids,
large proteins called lectins–are distributed
through a liquid. One of the basic principles of
the culinary art is that this effluvium should be
carefully removed with a spoon. Otherwise the
broth will be ruined by strange flavors. Besides,
the stuff looks terrible. “Always Skim” is the first commandment of good cooks.

Two hours simmering is enough to extract flavors
and gelatin from fish broth. Larger animals take
longer–all day for broth made from chicken,
turkey or duck and overnight for beef broth.

Broth should then be strained. The leavings,
picked over, can be used for terrines or tacos or
casseroles. Perfectionists will want to chill the
broth to remove the fat. Stock will keep several
days in the refrigerator or may be frozen in
plastic containers. Boiled down it concentrates
and becomes a jellylike fumée or demi-glaze that
can be reconstituted into a sauce by adding water.

Cutting Corners

Research on gelatin came to an end in the 1950s
because the food companies discovered how to
induce Maillard reactions and produce meat-like
flavors in the laboratory. In a General Foods
Company report issued in 1947, chemists predicted
that almost all natural flavors would soon be
chemically synthesized. And following the Second
World War, food companies also discovered
monosodium glutamate (MSG), a food ingredient the
Japanese had invented in 1908 to enhance food
flavors, including meat-like flavors. Humans
actually have receptors on the tongue for
glutamate. It is the protein in food that the human body recognizes as meat.

Any protein can be hydrolyzed to produce a base
containing free glutamic acid or MSG. When the
industry learned how to make the flavor of meat
in the laboratory, using inexpensive proteins
from grains and legumes, the door was opened to a
flood of new products including bouillon cubes,
dehydrated soup mixes, sauce mixes, TV dinners
and condiments with a meaty taste. “Homemade”
soup in most restaurants begins with a powdered
soup base that comes in a package or can and
almost all canned soups and stews contain MSG,
often found in ingredients called hydrolyzed
porteins. The fast food industry could not exist
without MSG and artificial meat flavors to make
“secret” sauces and spice mixes that beguile the
consumer into eating bland and tasteless food.

Short cuts mean big profits for producers but the
consumer is short changed. When homemade stocks
were pushed out by cheap substitutes, an
important source of minerals disappeared from the
American diet. The thickening effects of gelatin
could be mimicked with emulsifiers but the health benefits were lost.

Most serious, however, were the problems posed by
MSG, problems the industry has worked very hard
to conceal from the public. In 1957, scientists
found that mice became blind and obese when MSG
was administered by feeding tube. In 1969,
MSG-induced lesions were found in the
hypothalamus region of the brain. Other studies
all point in the same direction–MSG is a
neurotoxic substance that causes a wide range of
reactions, from temporary headaches to permanent brain damage.

Why do consumers react to factory-produced MSG
and not to naturally occurring glutamic acid
found in food? One theory is that the glutamic
acid produced by hydrolysis in factories contains
many isomers in the right-handed form, whereas
natural glutamic acid in meat and meat broths
contains only the left-handed form. L-glutamic
acid is a precursor to neurotransmitters, but the
synthetic form, d-glutamic acid, may stimulate
the nervous system in pathological ways.

A “Brothal” in Every Town

Peasant societies still make broth. It is a
necessity in cultures that do not use milk
because only stock made from bones and dairy
products provides calcium in a form that the body
can easily assimilate. It is also a necessity
when meat is a luxury item, because gelatin in
properly made broth helps the body use protein in an efficient way.

Thus, broth is a vital element in Asian
cuisines–from the soothing long-simmered beef
broth in Korean soups to the foxy fish broth with
which the Japanese begin their day. Genuine
Chinese food cannot exist without the stockpot
that bubbles perpetually. Bones and scraps are
thrown in and mineral-rich stock is removed to
moisten stir-frys. Broth-based soups are snack
foods from Thailand to Manchuria.

Asian restaurants in the US are likely to take
shortcuts and use a powdered base for sweet and
sour soup or kung pau chicken but in Japan and
China and Korea and Thailand, mom-and-pop
businesses make broth in steamy back rooms and
sell it as soup in store fronts and on street corners.

What America needs is healthy fast food and the
only way to provide this is to put brothals in
every town, independently owned brothals that
provide the basic ingredient for soups and sauces
and stews. And brothals will come when Americans
recognize that the food industry has prostituted
itself to short cuts and huge profits, shortcuts
that cheat consumers of the nutrients they should
get in their food and profits that skew the
economy towards industrialization in farming and food processing.

Until our diners and carryouts become places that
produce real food, Americans can make broth in
their own kitchens. It’s the easy way to produce
meals that are both nutritious and delicious­and
to acquire the reputation of an excellent cook.


Heads and Feet

If you’ve ever shopped in Europe, you’ve noticed
that calves feet are displayed at the local
butchers and chickens come with their heads and
feet attached. Hooves, feet and heads are the
most gelatinous portions of the animal and fetch
high prices in traditional economies. In fact,
Tysons exports the feet from American chickens to
China. Jewish folklore considers the addition of
chicken feet the secret to successful broth.

It’s hard to find these items in America. Asian
and Latin American markets sometimes carry whole
birds and some butchers in ethnic neighborhoods
carry calves feet. If you have freezer space, you
can buy frozen chicken feet and calves feet in
bulk from meat wholesalers that cater to the
restaurant trade. Have the butcher cut the calves
feet into one-inch cubes and package them in
1-quart bags. For the most satisfactory results,
use 2-4 chicken feet for chicken stock and about
2 pounds calves feet pieces for a large pot of beef stock.

Sauce Basics

Meat sauces are made from stocks that have been
flavored and thickened in some way. Once you have
learned the technique for making sauces­either
clear sauces or thick gravies­you can ignore the
recipe books and be guided by your imagination.

Reduction Sauces are produced by rapid boiling of
gelatinous stock to produce a thick, clear sauce.
The first step is to “deglaze” coagulated meat
juices in the roasting pan or skillet by adding
1/2 cup to 1 cup wine or brandy, bringing to a
boil and stirring with a wooden spoon to loosen
pan drippings. Then add 3 to 4 cups stock, bring
to a boil and skim. (Use chicken stock for
chicken dishes, beef stock for beef dishes, etc.)
The sauce may now be flavored with any number of
ingredients, such as vinegar, mustard, herbs,
spices, fresh orange or lemon juice, naturally
sweetened jam, garlic, tomato paste, grated
ginger, grated lemon rind, creamed coconut, whole
coconut milk or cultured cream. Let sauce boil
vigorously, uncovered, until reduced by at least
one half, or until desired thickness is achieved.
You may add about 1-2 teaspoons gelatin to
promote better thickening, although this should
be avoided by those with MSG sensitivities (as
gelatin contains small amounts of MSG). Another
way to thicken is to mix 2 tablespoons arrowroot
powder with 2 tablespoons water. Gradually add
this to the boiling sauce until the desired
thickness is obtained. If sauce becomes too
thick, thin with a little water. The final step
in sauce-making is to taste and add sea salt if necessary.

Gravies are thickened with flour rather than by
reduction. They are suitable for meats like roast
chicken and turkey, which drip plenty of fat into
the pan while cooking. After removing the
roasting fowl and roasting rack, place pan on a
burner. You should have at least 1/2 cup good fat
drippings­if not, add some butter, goose fat or
lard. Add about 1/2 cup unbleached flour to the
fat and cook over medium high heat for several
minutes, stirring constantly, until the flour
turns light brown. Add 4 to 6 cups warm stock,
bring to a boil and blend well with the fat-flour
mixture, using a wire whisk. Reduce heat and
simmer 10 minutes or so. Check for seasonings and
add sea salt and pepper if necessary. You may
also add herbs, cream, butter, whole coconut milk or creamed coconut.


Chicken Stock

1 whole free-range chicken or 2 to 3 pounds of
bony chicken parts, such as necks, backs, breastbones and wings*
gizzards from one chicken (optional)
2-4 chicken feet (optional)
4 quarts cold filtered water
2 tablespoons vinegar
1 large onion, coarsely chopped
2 carrots, peeled and coarsely chopped
3 celery stalks, coarsely chopped
1 bunch parsley

*Note: Farm-raised, free-range chickens give the
best results. Many battery-raised chickens will not produce stock that gels.

If you are using a whole chicken, cut off the
wings and remove the neck, fat glands and the
gizzards from the cavity. Cut chicken parts into
several pieces. (If you are using a whole
chicken, remove the neck and wings and cut them
into several pieces.) Place chicken or chicken
pieces in a large stainless steel pot with water,
vinegar and all vegetables except parsley. Let
stand 30 minutes to 1 hour. Bring to a boil, and
remove scum that rises to the top. Reduce heat,
cover and simmer for 6 to 8 hours. The longer you
cook the stock, the richer and more flavorful it
will be. About 10 minutes before finishing the
stock, add parsley. This will impart additional mineral ions to the broth.

Remove whole chicken or pieces with a slotted
spoon. If you are using a whole chicken, let cool
and remove chicken meat from the carcass. Reserve
for other uses, such as chicken salads,
enchiladas, sandwiches or curries. Strain the
stock into a large bowl and reserve in your
refrigerator until the fat rises to the top and
congeals. Skim off this fat and reserve the stock
in covered containers in your refrigerator or freezer.

Beef Stock

about 4 pounds beef marrow and knuckle bones
1 calves foot, cut into pieces (optional)
3 pounds meaty rib or neck bones
4 or more quarts cold filtered water
1/2 cup vinegar
3 onions, coarsely chopped
3 carrots, coarsely chopped
3 celery stalks, coarsely chopped
several sprigs of fresh thyme, tied together
1 teaspoon dried green peppercorns, crushed
l bunch parsley

Place the knuckle and marrow bones and optional
calves foot in a very large pot with vinegar and
cover with water. Let stand for one hour.
Meanwhile, place the meaty bones in a roasting
pan and brown at 350 degrees in the oven. When
well browned, add to the pot along with the
vegetables. Pour the fat out of the roasting pan,
add cold water to the pan, set over a high flame
and bring to a boil, stirring with a wooden spoon
to loosen up coagulated juices. Add this liquid
to the pot. Add additional water, if necessary,
to cover the bones; but the liquid should come no
higher than within one inch of the rim of the
pot, as the volume expands slightly during
cooking. Bring to a boil. A large amount of scum
will come to the top, and it is important to
remove this with a spoon. After you have skimmed,
reduce heat and add the thyme and crushed peppercorns.

Simmer stock for at least 12 and as long as 72
hours. Just before finishing, add the parsley and
simmer another 10 minutes. You will now have a
pot of rather repulsive-looking brown liquid
containing globs of gelatinous and fatty
material. It doesn’t even smell particularly
good. But don’t despair. After straining you will
have a delicious and nourishing clear broth that
forms the basis for many other recipes in this book.

Remove bones with tongs or a slotted spoon.
Strain the stock into a large bowl. Let cool in
the refrigerator and remove the congealed fat
that rises to the top. Transfer to smaller
containers and to the freezer for long-term storage.

Fish Stock

3 or 4 whole carcasses, including heads, of
non-oily fish such as sole, turbot, rockfish or snapper
2 tablespoons butter
2 onions, coarsely chopped
1 carrot, coarsely chopped
several sprigs fresh thyme
several sprigs parsley
1 bay leaf
1/2 cup dry white wine or vermouth
1/4 cup vinegar
about 3 quarts cold filtered water

Ideally, fish stock is made from the bones of
sole or turbot. In Europe, you can buy these fish
on the bone. The fish monger skins and filets the
fish for you, giving you the filets for your
evening meal and the bones for making the stock
and final sauce. Unfortunately, in America sole
arrives at the fish market preboned. But snapper,
rock fish and other non-oily fish work equally
well; and a good fish merchant will save the
carcasses for you if you ask him. As he normally
throws these carcasses away, he shouldn’t charge
you for them. Be sure to take the heads as well
as the body­these are especially rich in iodine
and fat-soluble vitamins. Classic cooking texts
advise against using oily fish such as salmon for
making broth, probably because highly unsaturated
fish oils become rancid during the long cooking process.

Melt butter in a large stainless steel pot. Add
the vegetables and cook very gently, about 1/2
hour, until they are soft. Add wine and bring to
a boil. Add the fish carcasses and cover with
cold, filtered water. Add vinegar. Bring to a
boil and skim off the scum and impurities as they
rise to the top. Tie herbs together and add to
the pot. Reduce heat, cover and simmer for at
least 4 hours or as long as 24 hours. Remove
carcasses with tongs or a slotted spoon and
strain the liquid into pint-sized storage
containers for refrigerator or freezer. Chill
well in the refrigerator and remove any congealed
fat before transferring to the freezer for long-term storage.

About the Author

Sally Fallon Morell
Sally Fallon Morell is the author of Nourishing
Traditions: The Cookbook that Challenges
Politically Correct Nutrition and the Diet
Dictocrats (with Mary G. Enig, PhD), a
well-researched, thought-provoking guide to
traditional foods with a startling message:
Animal fats and cholesterol are not villains but
vital factors in the diet, necessary for normal
growth, proper function of the brain and nervous
system, protection from disease and optimum
energy levels. She joined forces with Enig again
to write Eat Fat, Lose Fat, and has authored
numerous articles on the subject of diet and
health. The President of the Weston A. Price
Foundation and founder of
<http://www.realmilk .com/>A Campaign for Real
Milk, Sally is also a journalist, chef, nutrition
researcher, homemaker, and community activist.
Her four healthy children were raised on whole
foods including butter, cream, eggs and meat.

Written by :
Jill Nienhiser

<https://www. westonaprice. org/food- features/ 515-broth- is-beautiful. html/component/ community/ 3549-jill- nienhiser/ profile.html>Jill